BBG Workout – Kayla Itsines Bikini Body Guide Review

BBG Workout – Kayla Itsines Bikini Body Guide Review

The Kayla Itsines BBG Workout is a fitness plan for achieving not only physical fitness but also self-confidence and happiness.  Kayla’s bikini body guide is by no means a fad diet or a get fit quick gimmick.  The BBG program is for any woman, between the ages of 16 and 40, who are ready to make a lifestyle change.

The BBG program is for any woman, between the ages of 16 and 40, who are ready to make a lifestyle change. Even if you’re already in your 30s and busy being a mom, you still can transform your body easy with this fitness plan.

There are many detailed reviews on Kayla Itsines BBG workout such as the review by Bikini Body Guide by Kayla Itsines has been proven to work for everybody!

Don’t let the term ‘bikini body’ fool you. A bikini body is whatever you want it to be. It embodies a feeling of self-satisfaction and confidence. This fitness guide will give you the tools to succeed if you put in the work.

This guide is a great asset for women who are looking for a program that works for you if you work with it.  The BBG community is over 10 million women strong and is one of the biggest female fitness communities in the world.

Numerous women have shared their transformation stories on Kayla Itsines website.  The BBG program has been changing the lives of woman everywhere since its creation.  Kayla frequently shares dramatic before and after pictures to her 5.8 million followers via Instagram.

BBG Workout Pioneer

bbg workout kayla itsines

Kayla Itsines is the director of the Bikini Body Training Company Pty Ltd.  She started this company soon after her work as a trainer at a female only facility in South Australia.

In 2012, Kayla joined forces with Fresh Fitness solutions with the goal of reaching more women through the creation of boot camps.   Now, Bikini Body training is something she is known worldwide for.

Kayla’s mission is to simply aid as many females as possible in reaching their goals and have a body positive outlook. This guide, originally created in 2013, is simply one method that makes her vision possible.

Kayla Itsines Bikini Body Guide Overview

The BBG workout is organized into three areas, each one being essential to your progress.

Tracking Your Progress:  This area emphasizes the importance of having a goal and having a way to measure how your body evolves with time.  It offers advice on how to take your progress photos and the importance of consistency when weighing in.

Weekly Training Breakdown: This section is the meat and potatoes of the BBG guide.  It breaks down how and when you should train, provides a detailed workout breakdown for each day and a step-by-step guide for how to do each workout.

Education:  The education section provides the knowledge you need to keep your progress going even after the 12 weeks.  It provides the benefits of the various workouts encompassed in the guide and how they affect your workout.

Tracking Your Progress With Kayla Itsines BBG Program

Having a starting point is an important aspect of the BBG program.  When no victory is too small, it is important to have a way to track your progress.  This can be done in a variety of ways.  BBG recommends using not only your weight as a starting measurement but also girth measurements and photographs.

Photographs give you pictorial evidence of the progress you have made and can’t be denied.   For this reason, Kayla has added written reminders for taking progress photos throughout the BBG guide for you to keep track.

The Bikini Body Guide training can be done from nearly anywhere.  BBG workout pdf takes you through a 3 month or 12 week training program with varying workouts by week. The BBG workout consists of 3 styles of training including resistance, cardio (cardiovascular) and rehabilitation (stretching).

Kayla provides a basic list of equipment that is to be used throughout the 12 weeks.

Each 4-week interval consists of a different makeup of workouts.  The BBG workout schedule is as follows.  Each of the below workouts are performed weekly.

Week 1-4

  • 2-3 Resistance Tracking Sessions
  • 2-3 LISS Cardio Sessions
  • 1 Session of Rehabilitation (stretch)

Week 5-8

  • 2-3 Resistance Tracking Sessions
  • 4-5 LISS Cardio Sessions
  • 1 Session of Rehabilitation (stretch)

Week 9-12

  • 3-4 Resistance Tracking Sessions
  • 2-3 LISS Cardio Training Units
  • 1-2 HIIT Cardio Training Units
  • 1-2 Session(s) of Rehabilitation (stretch)

The above schedule mentions LISS and HIIT workouts.  LISS is 35- 45 minutes of power walking and HIIT is 10 – 15 minutes of sprint training.

The guide encourages using the progressive overload technique, which simply means increasing your resistance or training frequency over time.  Being that everyone’s schedule is different Kayla Itsines provides a free weekly workout planner to keep you on track.

In order to keep motivated the Sweat with Kayla cell phone application can be downloaded through Google Play or Apple app stores.  The app takes you through your weekly circuits with timers, exercise help and equipment lists. A 7-day free trial is offered to give you a taste of what the app has to offer.  This essentially replaces the pdf versions of the eBook.

Kayla Itsines Workout Circuit Training

bikini body guide

Circuit training involves more than 2 exercises that are performed in a set number of repetitions.  The BBG workout program consists of 7-minute circuits with 4 exercises in each circuit.  In between each circuit, a 30 – 90 second rest is given.

Warming up before beginning circuit workouts are a must.  Due to the level of intensity, these workouts are not recommended for beginners.  There should be a basic knowledge of cardiovascular fitness.  If you are a beginner Kayla suggests first performing 2-3 weeks of regular walking in order to build a solid foundation.

In order to bridge the gap for beginners, the guide offers 4 weeks of pre-training for people who are completely new to the circuit workout style.  Pre-training consists of the following:

Weeks 1-2

  • 2-3 Resistance Tracking Sessions
  • 1-2 LISS Cardio Sessions
  • 1 Session of Rehabilitation (stretch)

Weeks 3-4

  • 2-3 Resistance Tracking Sessions
  • 2-3 LISS Cardio Sessions
  • 1 Session of Rehabilitation (stretch)

The workout section houses everything you need to make your workout successful.  It contains a daily schedule for each week of the training.  The exercise glossary is a perfect addition to the guide for anyone who is unsure of how to do the workouts currently.   The 51-item guide provides step-by-step images on how to perform the workouts correctly.

Although the last area in the BBG guide, the education piece is no less important than the other two sections.  Having a growing knowledge of health and fitness will keep your bikini body flourishing year after year.

The education section brings the BBG program full circle.  Information for all of the workouts and exercise methods, which were referenced in the guide, are targeted in the education section.

BBG Workout Review Conclusion

Overall, Kayla Itsines Bikini Body Guide is a great guide for the everyday woman looking to get the body that she has always wanted.  For some, the bikini body may only be 5 lbs away and for others it may be 45.  Regardless of your goal, through hard work and dedication Kayla helps you reach it.

If you haven’t taken a look at the amazing Kayla Itsines reviews such as this, please do.  They alone are enough to get any couch potato up and moving.

After reading various Kayla Itsines reviews, many users said the scale-based results were not immediate but did come with time.  However, this guide is simply a stepping-stone for your lifelong fitness journey. For the BBG enthusiast, Bikini Body 2.0 is available for weeks 13 – 24.

For women looking for more nutrition-based aid, the H.E.L.P guide is a wonderful option.  The Healthy Planning Lifestyle Plan (H.E.L.P) is a nutrition guide that can be used in conjunction with the BBG workout guide.  It is also available in a vegetarian option.

The Bikini Body Guide can be purchased alone or in conjunction with the Healthy Planning Lifestyle Plan (H.E.L.P).  If you are ready to make a commitment and change for the better, Kayla Itsines BBG Workout is perfect for you!

4 Ways to Get a Killer Workout at Home

4 Ways to Get a Killer Workout at Home

The gym is the perfect place to work out. You have space, the equipment, and the resources. Sometimes, though the gym cannot fit into our lives; Whether that be for lack of time, money or distance. Those who are met with this situation find themselves in their homes working out. Sometimes they are stuck, though on what exactly they should do.

I have compiled a list of four ways to get a killer workout at home, to keep your body in prime shape.

15-minute workout

No need to grab anything, but yourself and a hand towel. You can accomplish this workout anywhere. Whether you are at the office, in your living room or away on business in your hotel room.

  • Lateral Lunge- The lateral lung mainly targets your adductors, Quadriceps, glutes, and abductors. To do this workout you must:
  1. Stand straight with your hands on your hips, your feet shoulder-width apart and your left foot on the towel.
  2. Bend your right knee and thrust your hips back as you slide your left foot out to the side till you cannot go any further.
  • Count to four, then pull yourself back into the standing position you started in.
  1. Do 15 reps, then switch to other leg and repeat reps.
  • Leg curls- Building muscles are the main benefit for doing leg curls. It also helps your gluteal and hamstring muscles.

To do this workout you must:

  1. Lay on the floor face up, heels of your feet on your towel and knees bent. Lift yourself up until your body is straight from your knees to your shoulders. Slide heels away from you as far as possible with dropping your waist. Hold for three seconds.
  2. Move back to original start position and repeat 15 times.
  • Seated oblique twist- This exercise benefits your internal and external oblique’s as well as strengthens your back due to the position for this workout.

To do this workout you must:

  1. Sit on the floor grasping the towel firm between your hands, arms square and extended at shoulder elevation.
  2. Raise your feet as you lean back about a foot off the floor while keeping your abs squeezed and knees bent.
  • Pull the towel toward the floor, rotating your torso and shoulders.
  1. Hold, then move back to center position and do the same for opposite side.
  2. Do 20 reps

Fast-paced 5-minute speed circuit

This is going to get your heart racing and give you a killer cardio exercise in five minutes. There is no equipment necessary so lace up your sneaks and put on some music. It’s time to sweat.

The object of this workout goes like this; You do each move for thirty seconds. Do as many reps as you can in those thirty seconds. Then take thirty seconds to rest. Time to move on to the next move. You do the same thirty-seconds/rep process and then rest again

It’s pretty simple. Here’s what these five moves are.

  1. Speedy feet- If you don’t want to completely rest those thirty seconds in between; Use this move in-between each exercise instead of resting to make your workout that much more rewarding.

To do this you need to:

  • Widen your posture, bend your knees and move your torso forward slightly.
  • Move feet up and down in tiny rapid steps for thirty seconds.
  1. Leaping Lunges
    • Start in a lunge position.
    • Throw arms forward as you jump
    • Switch legs in midair
    • Land with opposite leg in front

Do as many reps as possible in thirty seconds, then rest or do speedy feet for thirty seconds.

  1. Pivot-and-reaches
    • Stand with toes pointed in 45-degree angle to one side and feet wider than your hips
    • Reach opposite arm to an angle in the direction of the ceiling to the same path your feet are pointing.
    • Pivot feet so they point to other side and switch the reaching arm at the same time
    • Keep your abdominals tightened throughout the exercise

Do these for thirty seconds followed by rest or speedy feet for thirty seconds.

  1. Lateral hops
    • Start with both legs together
    • Jump from side to side as if you were jumping over a rope or another object
    • Land lightly then repeat immediately

Do these for thirty seconds followed by rest or speedy feet for thirty seconds

  1. Speed squats
    • Stand with legs hip-width apart
    • Go into a deep squat then stand back up quickly

If your butt isn’t burning in five seconds, move faster squat deeper, or both.

Commercial break exercises

Let’s stay home and workout, while watching TV. Here are some simple exercises that you can do on commercial breaks to give you a good workout.

  • Curtsy squat
  • Walk out pushup
  • Burpees
  • V-crunch
  • Downward Dog Pushup
  • Mountain Climbers

Click on any of the exercises to see how to perform each move.


Yoga not only increases flexibility and builds strength, but also helps you relax your mind and focus more clearly. Follow these exercises for an easy at home workout that will keep your body lean.

Warm up

  • Sit on the floor cross-legged, back straight and hands sitting softly on your legs.
  • Breathe deeply and evenly with your eyes closed for around two minutes.
  • Bend your body from side to side slowly for fifteen breaths, exhaling to each side.

Yoga exercises routine

  • Stay cross-legged from your warm-up pose, and move into a cow pose as you exhale. When you inhale, switch to cat pose. Alternate between cow and cat poses for fifteen breaths.
  • After cow and cat pose, press up into downward dog. Bring your knees to the floor, then push your body back up. Do these five times.
    • Move to an extended side angle
  • Do a lunge and an extended side angle to your left side.
  • Move facedown and complete the locust pose

Cool down

  • Lay flat on your back.
  • Breathe deeply with eyes closed for two minutes.

Can Going Vegetarian Help You Lose Weight?

Can Going Vegetarian Help You Lose Weight?

At one point in time, most of us are looking for the best diet options to fit our needs and lifestyle; And you have probably come across a vegetarian diet plan while on your quest. After all, pop star Adele claims to have used a vegetarian diet to lose 50 pounds! With the word spreading everyone is ready to find out if it really works.

So, this an option you want to explore and I’m here to break down the good, the bad, and the truth about all things vegetarian and dieting.

So, can going vegetarian Help you lose weight? 

Yes, you can! But you need to know exactly how to do it right.

There are many different types of vegetarians out there. Let’s break them down so you know which is what.

  • Semi-vegetarian: You will find two types of vegetarians under this label. The pollo Vegetarian and the pesco pollo – The pollo vegetarians avoid fish and red meat but will eat chicken while a pesco pollo vegetarian eats fish along with chicken, but stays away from red meat.
  • Lacto ovo vegetarian: A Lacto-Ovo vegetarian eliminates fish, meat, and poultry, including eggs and any food that is made with eggs, but does eat dairy products; For example, yogurt, cheese, and milk.
  • Vegan: A vegan is a veterinarian who does not digest any animal products. This includes meat, fish, dairy products, poultry, and eggs. They also avoid using products such as leather, silk wool and other items made by animal derivatives.

To do a vegetarian weight loss right, you need to know exactly what you should not be eating, what you should and how much of what you should.

Some nutrient-rich foods you should put into your vegetarian diet are:

  • Fruits
  • Beans
  • Nuts
  • Seeds
  • Healthy plant-based fats (i.e.: avocados)
  • Whole grains
  • lentils

vegetarian dietSome mistakes vegetarians make is living off of many processed foods such as veggie hot dogs, vegan cookies and more of those similar things. Doing this, especially when trying to lose weight is going to defeat its purpose. First off, you are not going to meet the recommended servings of produce and all these things are not good for you, just as if you were to eat non-vegetarian junk foods.

DO NOT drink your produce. When you decide to juice your veggies and fruits you are going to digest more calories than you realize. While the drink is a good taste bud alternative if you are not a big raw veggies fan, juicing your produce is going to leave you less than full, further leading you to eat more which is going to make you take in more calories.

Watch your cheese intake. Cheese has high levels of saturated fat. Now, there’s good fats to eat and bad fats. Saturated fat is not a good fat to be eating an excess of, so it’s really important to watch how much cheese, especially when you are not eating low-fat cheese.

Just one slice of American cheese has 100 calories; And even more worrisome is the 5 grams of saturated fat of the 8 grams’ cheese contains.

Again, watch the junk food intake such as macaroni and cheese and pizza.

Keeping dairy in your diet is completely up to you if you are a cheese lover, and wish to keep it in your diet. Limit your serving to 1 ounce of natural or organic cheese.

You still need protein if you decide to do a vegetarian diet. Here’s why:

  • Helps you get full faster
  • Preserves muscles
  • Speeds up your metabolism

There is protein you can eat that does not contain meat, such as Lentils, tofu, and Quinoa.

Interesting facts

  • Consistent with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an astounding 65% of American adult over twenty are obese or overweight.
  • Vegetarians fall below ten percent of that number, showing the benefits of sticking to a strict vegetarian diet. Both male and female vegetarians on average, weigh 3% to 20% lower than non-vegetarians.
  • Research shows that swapping to good vegan diet results in weight loss, without substituting changes to exercise or meal portion sizes.

Taking on a vegetarian diet for weight loss can be successful if you do things the right way. If you plan on making any changes to your diet, it’s suggested you contact your doctor to discuss your options and needs.


The 3 Biggest Mistakes People Make When Going on a Low Carb Diet

The 3 Biggest Mistakes People Make When Going on a Low Carb Diet

If you are looking to lose a lot of excess body fat a low-carb diet is the way to go, but unfortunately, we all make a lot of common mistakes when we diet.

Before you begin any diet, it is suggested you should consult your physician to make sure they are aware, so if anything goes belly-up, they have this information on hand for you. They can also help point you in the right directions too. Some things doctors don’t discuss, though. You don’t want to start a diet on the wrong foot.

What is a low-carb diet?

dieting tips

A low card diet is a diet that mostly consists of protein, fat and healthy vegetables. With a low-carb diet, you will limit your carbohydrates intake which means avoiding pasta, sugary foods, and bread. Studies have presented that low-carb diets can help with weight loss and improve your health.  There are many different kinds of low-carb diets out there, so make sure you choose the one that’s best for you.

After you choose which low-carb diet plan is best for you, and you put that plan into place, be sure you are not making these big mistakes.

  • Eat plenty of fats

When you think of a diet, the first thing you hardly think you will hear is to eat plenty of fats. This, however, is a good thing when you are on a low-carb diet. Eating healthy fats from protein is going to give you energy and give you lots of other health benefits. You need to make sure you are choosing the right fats, though. Not all of them are good for you.

  • Limit your alcohol

You don’t have to give up alcohol altogether, but you should try and avoid certain drinks to keep you on track and limit how much you choose to drink also. While you will find low-carb drinks out there. Mostly with Hard liquor or wine, there are a lot of options you should avoid such as sugary cocktails and beer.

If you do choose beer, try to go with a light or ultra-light kind or else you will end up consuming way more carbohydrates than you are limited to on a low-carb diet.

A fact you should be aware of: When you are on a low-carb diet you are not putting as much fuel into your body, which makes your body burn stored fat.  A good guide to drinking while on a low-carb diet can be found easily.

  • Lack of planning

Starting a low-carb diet means you are about to make some major changes with what you are going to be digesting. It’s more than likely you have developed some sort of unhealthy eating habits (and this includes drinks), and you will find it is going to be harder than you realize to resist those sugary, carb-loaded foods.

This is why you should plan. Plan out what you will eat each day, what you will drink, and don’t stray from it. I would suggest you do this for quite a while till you have developed healthy eating habits. Out with the old and in with the new.

While we all know the many benefits of making healthy choices reflect what we see when we step on the scale, only healthy habit eating can get you so far. The recommended amount of exercise is 3-4 days per week. This is going to aid in your low-carb diet to achieve the results you are looking for.

7 Best Workouts For Sexy Tummy!

7 Best Workouts For Sexy Tummy!

When we refer to the ‘lower abs’, we are actually using an incorrect term. Your ab muscles, the rectus Abdominis, in fact encompasses your entire stomach area and connecting near the pelvis. Yet, we still consistently aim to complete exercises within our workouts that help reduce the belly fat on our lower stomach! Well, we have the answer for you. The following exercises target various different abdominal muscles through your core area to optimize every single repetition you do.

What do these exercises do for you that others may not? The focus on activating your core rather than moving through the motions to tone your mid-section. A study has shown that if you actively focus on turning on your muscles whilst performing a movement. By doing so, you will experience increased muscle activity and thus improved strength development in time. It is imperative not to force yourself through the movement, but think about your movement and actively engage every muscle. Follow the mind muscle connection tips provided to encourage and increase results.

How do I structure my workouts with these exercises?

Complete the recommended number of repetitions and sets of each exercise simultaneously. Ensure you take a 60-second break between each set. This workout should be performed on alternate days to ensure appropriate muscle recovery. Essentially, the workout will be performed 3 – 4 days a week. You can also complete a few exercises post cardio workout or make them an addition to your current strength-training regime! Do the prescribed number of sets and reps for each exercise consecutively, taking a short 45-second rest between sets.

Will I need equipment?

Not necessarily! If you don’t want to lie on the grass or the floor, you may need an exercise mat or you can just use a towel. But, that’s it! Super easy!

Now let’s get started. These 9 exercises will blast your abs into strong, hard rocks.

1) Static Leg Press


What is it?

The static leg press is an effective exercise to activate your core before starting your exercise or at any time to get that core activated and firing.


Lie on your back; face up with your legs at 90 degrees (both hips and knees). Stretch out your arms and place both hands on your thighs. Breathe in deeply and exhale while bracing your abs tightly. Ensure to press your back firmly into the ground. Press your thighs back into your palms and try to resist your thighs with your palms. Your thighs should not move, remaining ‘static’. Hold for 10 seconds then release. Repeat 5 – 10 times.

Mind muscle connection:

When resisting your thighs with your palms, imagine pulling your muscles into your midline from your pelvic area right up to your tummy.

2)Butterfly Press


Lie on your back facing up with your knees bent and tilted outwards and heels together. As you inhale, lift your head and shoulders from the ground; curl up from your ribcage to look at your legs. Keep your arms stretched out by your sides of the ground.

When you exhale extend your legs out to 45 degrees by pushing through your heels. Ensure you squeeze your legs together at the knees. Inhale and once again bring your legs back in towards your body. Complete 2 -3 sets of 12 repetitions.

Getting stronger? Increase the challenge:

As you extend our legs when you exhale, extend them lower to the ground. You can also keep your legs lifted and extended and just lift and lower as you inhale and exhale. Ensure your back stays flat on the ground.

Mind muscle connection:

Keep your mind on your abdominals and focus on keeping your back flat on the ground by drawing your core towards your spine. Force them to do all the work when lifting and lowering.

3)Reverse Push Up and Hold

This exercise is so much harder than it looks! It engages your core and so many other muscles throughout your body.


Sit on the ground and extend your legs out in front of you with your hands placed just next to your hips, fingers forwards.  Squeeze your core, press down into the palms of your hands and lift your bottom off the ground. Slightly bend your knees, leaving your heels on the ground.  As you inhale, squeeze your abs in tighter towards your back. Straighten your legs and push your bottom back past the line of your shoulders. Hold for 5 seconds. Bring the slight bend back into your knees and move your bottom back under your results and return it to the ground. Complete two to three sets of12 reps.

Getting stronger? Increase the challenge:

Rather than returning to the ground on each repetition, try to keep them elevated off the floor for the whole set.

Mind muscle connection:

Focus on your abs making the movement when lifting and moving your bottom to and from each position.

4) Scissor Lift and Switch

Two for one, this exercise really boosts your belly busting benefits.


On your back with your arms placed by your sides, extend your legs up to the roof. Cross your left leg over your right leg. Squeeze your stomach muscles as you inhale while lowering your legs to 45 degrees. Exhale and bring your legs back towards your body, lifting them back over your head at an angle. Ensure you lift your hips off the floor and press into the floor with your palms and forearms to stabilize yourself. Hold for 5 seconds. Slowly lower your body by rolling through your spine one vertebrae at a time bringing your hips and legs back to the ground to the starting position. Complete 2 – 3 sets of 12 repetitions.

Not quite there yet? Reduce the challenge:

This is a hard exercise, so keep practicing. As you get stronger you will feel better and be able to do the full movement. If you can’t get your hips off the ground, begin by trying to lift your legs up and over and see if you can get yourself a few cm off the ground and then lower right away.

Mind muscle connection:

You should constantly pull your abdominals towards your back, as if you are sucking your belly button into your spine. Tense your muscles from pelvis to ribs as your roll up and over.

5)Plank Up and Down

planks for tummy

You will feel this exercise throughout your entire abdominal section as well as your arms and shoulders!


Start in push up position feet just outside hip-width. Keep your body in a straight line from head to toe. Drop yourself down onto your left elbow then let the right elbow follow. You will now be in an elbow plank position. Return to the start position by pushing back up onto your left hand and then let the right follow. Repeat 12 times on each side, for 2- 3 sets.

Not quite there yet? Reduce the challenge:

Start in a kneeling push up position instead of on your feet. This will reduce the pressure on your shoulders and arms.

Mind muscle connection:

Draw your abdominals in towards your spine and hold it there through the entire movement. Try to keep your hips as still as possible to engage the core more.

6)Rotational Mountain Climber

Get into those hard to attack oblique muscles with this dynamic rotational movement!


Begin in a push up position with your feet together and body in a straight line from head to toe. Lift and bend your left knee across to the right as you drive your left knee and rotate slightly at the hip towards the right side of your body. Move your left leg back to start and then repeat to the right. Complete 2 – 3 sets of 15 repetitions on each side.

Mind muscle connection:

Think about your abdominals instead of your hip driving your knee up towards the right side of your body.

7)Butterfly Press


Lie on your back facing up with your knees bent and tilted outwards and heels together. As you inhale, lift your head and shoulders from the ground; curl up from your ribcage to look at your legs. Keep your arms stretched out by your sides off the ground.

When you exhale extend your legs out to 45 degrees by pushing through your heels. Ensure you squeeze your legs together at the knees. Inhale and once again bring your legs back in towards your body. Complete 2 -3 sets of 12 repetitions.

Getting stronger? Increase the challenge:

As you extend our legs when you exhale, extend them lower to the ground. You can also keep your legs lifted and extended and just lift and lower as you inhale and exhale. Ensure your back stays flat on the ground.

Mind muscle connection:

Keep your mind on your abdominals and focus on keeping your back flat on the ground by drawing your core towards your spine. Force them to do all the work when lifting and lowering.

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